Japanese Self-Studying Updates (Lessons 1-8) | Blushing Geek

Japanese Self-Study Updates (Lessons 42 and 43)

Konnichiwa minna-san!

It’s Monday again so it’s time for another weekly update! So last week I studied the don’t have to ~ form as well as the can or potential form. It was actually a pretty interesting lesson and (as usual) I enjoyed learning them.

For this week, I am learning something new which is actually pretty confusing. But guess what? I’m so excited to master them! Check them out below.

And again, this is not an attempt to create a tutorial but just sharing what I’ve learn from Misa-sensei’s Grammar Lessons for Absolute Beginners in Youtube. You can see what I’ve been learning from Lessons 1-41 here.

Lesson 42: A is more/better than B (comparison)

A is better than B
=> A no hou ga B yori ii (desu)

 

Explanation:
B yori = than B (compared to B)
A no hou ga = A is more
ii = good

 

Ex: Ramen is better than pasta
=> Ramen no hou ga pasuta yori ii (desu)
Season 1 is better than season 2
=> Shiizun 1 no hou ga shiizun 2 yori ii (desu)

 

This example is a bit advance:
I think pasta is better than ramen
=> Pasuta no hou ga ramen yori ii to omou / omoimasu

 

A is better than B
=> A no hou ga B yori ii (desu)
or
=> B yori A no hou ga ii (desu)

You can change the word order and they can still mean the same thing. But the standard way is: A no hou ga B yori ii (desu)

 

Ex: Snow is better than rain
=> Yuki no hou ga ame yori ii (desu)
or
=> Ame yori yuki no hou ga ii (desu)

The latter sentence structure is often used when someone says the opposite thing. Like for example, Haruko said: Snow is better than rain => Yuki no hou ga ame yori ii (desu) and then I would say: No Haruko, rain is better than snow => Yuki yori ame no hou ga ii (desu)
(lit: than snow <compared to snow>, rain is better)

But really, the order doesn’t matter so you can use either of the two. Also, you can change the ii into other adjectives.

 

poteto chipuzu or potechi (most commonly used) => potato chips
karada => health

Ex: L is smarter than Light
=> Eru no hou ga Raito yori atama ga ii (desu)
Vegetables are healthier/better for you than potato chips
=> Yasai no hou ga potechi yori karada ni ii (desu)
Naruto is cooler/more handsome than Sasuke
=> Naruto no hou ga sasuki yori kakkoii (desu)
I like Naruto better than Sasuke / I prefer Naruto to Sasuke
=> Naruto no hou ga sasuke yori suki (desu)

 

Which one do you prefer A or B?
=> A to B to docchi no hou ga suki? <informal>
=> A to B to docchi no hou ga suki desu ka? <semi-formal>
=> A to B to dochira no hou ga suki desu ka? <formal>

For OR, they usually use the particle ka. Ex: A or B => A ka B, but for comparison, they use the particle to.

 

I like Pikachu better than Eevee / I prefer Pikachu to Eevee
=> Pikachu no hou ga iibui yori suki (desu)
I like both Pikachu and Eevee
=> Pikachu mo iibui mo suki (desu)
mo => also
So it’s like, Pikachu also Eevee also I like them. Or you could also say: I like both => docchi mo suki.

Docchi normally means which one, but if you add mo it becomes both. Docchi is mainly use for informal speeches so if you want to sound formal, you will use dochira mo. Ex: I like both => dochira mo suki desu.

 

You could also say:
I like both Pikachu and Eevee
=> Pikachu mo iibui mo docchimo suki<informal>
=> Pikachu mo iibui mo dochiramo suki desu <formal>
Which one do you prefer Pikachu or Eevee?
=> Minna wa Pikachu to iibui to docchi no hou ga suki? <informal>
=> Minna wa Pikachu to iibui to dochira no hou ga suki desu ka? <formal>

 

docchi <informal> / dochira <formal>
=> which one (out of 2 choices)
dore
=> which one (more than 2 choices)

 

ryokucha => green tea
kau => also means keep (a pet or other anime); to raise; to have; to own; to feed

Which one do you prefer summer of winter?
=> Natsu to fuyu to docchi no hou ga suki? <informal>
=> Natsu to fuyu to dochira no hou ga suki desu ka? <formal>
I prefer winter to summer
=> Fuyu no hou ga natsu yori suki (desu)
Which one do you prefer, coffee or tea?
=> Koohii to ocha to docchi no hou ga suki? <informal>
=> Koohii to ocha to dochira no hou ga suki desu ka? <formal>
I prefer tea to coffee
=> Ocha no hou ga koohii yori suki (desu)
or you could also say:
I prefer tea
=> Ocha no hou ga suki (desu)
Which do you prefer green tea or black tea?
=> Ryokucha to koucha to docchi no hou ga suki? <informal>
=> Ryokucha to koucha to dochira no hou ga suki desu ka? <formal>
Personally, I prefer green tea to black tea
=> Watashi wa ryokucha no hou ga koucha yori suki (desu)
Which one do you prefer dogs or cats?
=> Inu to neku to docchi no hou ga suki? <informal>
=> Inu to necku to dochira no hou ga suki desu ka? <formal>
Personally, I prefer dogs to cats
=> Watashi wa inu no hou ga neko yori suki (desu)
Because I have a dog
=> Inu wo katteiru kara
But I also like cats
=> demo, neko mo suki (desu)

 

nee => hey (listen)
This particle is usually used when you want to ask a question or you want to get their attention.

 

I can’t decide! Which one do you like, sexy (girls) or cute (girls)?
=> Mayo una, sekushiina no kyuutona no, docchi ga suki na no
mayou => can’t decide; to be puzzled
mayouna – this na particle is often used when you are talking to yourself. Like: Aww, it’s so cute => kawaii na.

Whenever you use English adjectives to Japanese, they always make it as a na-adjective.

Ex: sexy => sekushii-na
cute => kyuuto-na

 

If you put the no particle after the adjective, it means one <adjective>.
Ex: sekushiina no => sexy one
kyuutona no => cute one

 

The no particle at the end of the sentence means that we want someone to explain or answer the question. Also, when you add this no particle at the end of the sentence, you have to keep the na there if it’s a na-adjective.
Ex: Hey tell me which one do you like?
=> Docchi ga sukina no?

 

onnanoko => girls
Which one do you like, sexy or cute girls?
=> Sekushiina onnanoko to kyuutona onnanoko to docchi (no hou) ga suki? <informal>
=> Sekushiina onnanoko to kyuutona onnanoko to dochira (no hou) ga suki desu ka? <formal>

 

tabun => probably
ninki => popular
kuni => country
In the US, probably sexy girls would be more popular right?
=> Amerika de tabun sekushiina onnanoko no hou ga ninki desu ne?
But in Japan cute girls are more popular
=> Demo nihon de wa kawaii onnanoko no hou ga ninki (desu)
In your countries
=> Minna no kuni de
Which type of a girl is more popular, sexy or cute?
=> Sekushiina onnanoko to kyuutona onnanoko to docchi no hou ga ninki? <informal>
=> Sekushiina onnanoko to kyuutona onnanoko to dochira no hou ga ninki desu ka? <formal>

 

kenta => KFC
makku => Mcdonalds
bukka => cost of living

Which is better, the Deathnote anime or manga?
=> Desunooto wa anime to manga to docchi no hou ga ii? <informal>
=> Desunooto wa anime to manga to dochira no hou ga ii desu ka? <formal>
The deathnote manga is more interesting
=> Desunooto wa manga no hou ga omoshiroi (desu)
Canada is bigger than Japan
=> Kanada no hou ga nihon yori ookii (desu)
KFC is more expensive than Mcdonalds
=> Kenta no hou ga makku yori takai (desu)
KFC is a bit more expensive than Mcdonals
=> Kenta no hou ga makku yori chotto takai (desu)
The cost of living is more expensive in London than Kent
=> Bukka wa rondon no hou ga kento yori takai (desu) <most commonly used>
or
=> Rondon no bukka no hou ga kento yori takai (desu)
The cost of living is a lot more expensive in London than Kent
=> Bukka wa rondon no hou ga kento yori motto takai (desu)

 

A is not as ~ B
=> A wa B hodo ~nai <negation&gt;

igirisu => London
Ex:
Japan is not as small as England
=> Nihon wa igirisu hodo chiisakunai (desu)

New vocabularies learned from this lesson:

  • B yori => than B (compared to B)
  • A no hou ga => A is more
  • yuki => snow
  • poteto chipuzu or potechi (most commonly used) => potato chips
  • karada => health
  • docchi <informal> / dochira <formal> => which one (out of 2 choices)
  • docchimo <informal> / dochiramo <formal> => both
  • dore => which one (more than 2 choices)
  • kotae => answer
  • ryokucha => green tea
  • kau => also means keep (a pet or other anime); to raise; to have; to own; to feed
  • nee => hey (listen)
  • mayou => can’t decide; to be puzzled
  • sekushii-na => sexy
  • kyuuto-na => cute
  • onnanoko => girls
  • tabun => probably
  • ninki => popular
  • kuni => country
  • kenta => KFC
  • makku => Mcdonalds
  • igirisu => London

Lesson 43: A is the best / most ~

A is the best ~
=> A wa/ga ichiban <adj> (desu)
(lit. A is number 1 <adj>)
ichiban => number 1Ex: The cutest
=> Ichiban kawaii (desu)
The cutest pokemon is Pikachu
=> Ichiban kawaii pokemon wa pikachu (desu)
Ichiban <na-adjective>na <noun> / ichiban <na-adjective>
= the most ~Ex: The most beautiful person
=> Ichiban kireina hito
The most beautiful person is yuki
=> Ichiban kierina hito wa yuki-san (desu)A GA ichiban <adj> (desu)
= A is (the one that is) the most ~
You use the ga particle if you want to give emphasis to the proceeding word

 

Ex: Pikachu is (the one that is) the cutest
=> Pikachu ga ichiban kawaii (desu)

You will use this sentence structure as an answer to a question “which one is the cutest?”.

As you can remember, dare means who while dore means which one (more than 2 choices) so this dare is kinda the same with dare.

Ex: Who is this person?
=> Kono hito wa dare (desu ka)?

 

In an example, there’s a picture of kids and you want to ask which is Haruka. So you would say:
Which one is you Haruka? / Which one is Haruka?
=> Dore ga haruka (san desu ka)?

 

Which one is ~ ?
=> Dore ga ~ (desu ka) ?

 

Which one is the cutest?
=> Dore ga ichiban kawaii (desu ka)?
Which pokemon is the cutest?
=> Dono pokemon ga ichiban kawaii (desu ka)?

 

In the example above, we used dono instead of dore, it’s like the same with kono, sono, ano + <noun>. If you want to add a noun after, you can’t use the ~re form but you use the ~no form instead.

 

Dono <noun> ga ichiban ~ (desu ka)?
= which <noun> is the most ~ ?
You use the ga particle when:

  • you focus on WHO/WHAT is the best
  • you compare with others
  • when it answers “which” questions
  • when you’re in an argument

 

A wa ichiban ~
= A is the most ~
You use the wa particle when:

  • describing what kind of person/thing the subject is
  • introducing new topic
  • you want to focus more on the description

Ex: Tanaka is the kindest person
=> Tanaka-san wa ichiban yasashii hito (desu)
(describing tanaka’s trait, which is being the nicest person)
Eevee is the cutest pokemon
=> Iibui wa ichiban kawaii pokemon (desu)
(describing Eevee being the cutest pokemon)
Misa is the best teacher
=> Misa sensei wa ichiban ii sensei (desu)
(describing misa)
I think Misa is the best teacher
=> Misa sensei wa ichiban ii sensei da to omou/omoimasu

Usually, you would use the ga particle in this kind of sentence.

 

Which PS3 game is the best?
=> Dono PS3 no geemu ga ichiban ii (desu ka)?
or
=> PS3 wa dono geemu ga ichiban ii (desu ka)?
(lit: as for PS3, which one is the best game?)

 

You can answer that question:
A is the best
=> A ga ichiban ii (desu)
or
A is the best PS3 game
=> A ga ichiban ii PS3 no geemu (desu)

kanashii => sad
Which anime is the saddest?
=> Dono anime ga ichiban kanashii (desu ka)?
Ano hana is the saddest
=> Ano hana ga ichiban kanashii (desu)
or
Ano hana is the saddest anime
=> Ano hana ga ichiban kanashii anime (desu)
Anime called Ano Hana is the saddest
=> Ano hana tte/to iu anime ga ichiban kanashii (desu)
Which anime do you like the best?
=> Dono anime ga ichiban suki (desu ka)?

 

Which one is the most ~ ?
=> Dore ga ichiban ~ (desu ka)?
Which <noun> is the most ~ ?
=> Dono <noun> ga ichiban ~ (desu ka) ?
Which one is the most ~ among <groups> ?
=> <group> (no naka) de dore ga ichiban ~ (desu ka)?

doubutsu => animals
Ex: Which animal do you like the most?
=> Dono doubutsu ga ichiban suki (desu ka)?
or
Which one do you like the best among animals?
=> Doubutsu (no naka) de dore ga ichiban suki (desu ka)?

naka => inside (but for this example, it’s more like among)

 

Among animals, I like dogs the best
=> Doubutsu (no naka) de inu ga ichiban suki (desu)
or
I like dogs the best
=> Inu ga ichiban suki (desu)
Which one do you like the best among movies?
=> Eiga (no naka) de dore ga ichiban suki (desu ka)?
Who is the smartest in the class?
=> Kurasu (no naka) de dore ga ichiban atama ga ii (desu ka)?
or
=> Kurasu (no naka) de dono hito ga ichiban atama ga ii (desu ka)?

norimono => cars

Which one is the fastest among vehicles?
=> Norimono (no naka) de dore ga ichiban hayai (desu ka)?

 

Which one is the most ~ among <group> => <group> (no naka) de dore ga ichiban ~ (desu ka) is often used when the group is big like group of animals, etc. but when we talk about lesser group in number for example, seasons (there’s only 4 seasons), then we would say:
Which season do you like the most?
=> Dono kisetsu ga ichibansuki (desu ka)?

 

When we talk about choices with more than 2 but not so many, we would normally just use dono. Like for example, I have like 20 DVD collection only and then you should ask:
Which film do you want to see the most?
=> Dono eiga ga ichiban mitai (desu ka)?

 

kyarakuta- => characters

When you ask a favorite character from any anime:
Which character do you like the best among anime?
=> Anime (no naka) de dono kyarakuta- ga ichiban suki (desu ka)?

But if you ask a favorite character from a specific anime:
Which character from HunterxHunter do you like the best?
=> HunterxHunter no dono kyarakuta- ga ichiban suki (desu ka)? <more common>
but you can still say:
=> HunterxHunter (no naka) de dono kyarakuta- ichiban suki (desu ka)?

 

Another way:
Which one is the most <adj> <noun>?
=> Ichiban <adj> <noun> wa dore (desu ka)?
Ex: Which one is your all time favorite movie?
=> Ichiban sukina eiga wa dore (desu ka)?
Which one is your all time favorite book?
=> Ichiban sukina hon wa dore (desu ka)?
or you could say
What is your all time favorite book?
=> Ichiban sukina hon wa nan desu ka? <this sentence structure is very commonly used too>

New vocabularies learned from this lesson:

  • ichiban => number 1
  • kanashii => sad
  • doubutsu => animals
  • naka => inside (but for this example, it’s more like among)
  • norimono => cars
  • kyarakuta- => characters

 

That’s it for this week guys!

Btw, I am going to be pretty busy this week since I am preparing to depart for my training next week. That said, I won’t be able to post new articles as often as I do anymore (which includes weekly updates but that doesn’t mean I’ll skip taking new lessons, *wink). But I’ll still visit you guys online once in a while, *smile.

For the earlier lessons, you can refer to my previous updates for lessons 1-41. And again, if you want to study Japanese language as well, I am highly recommending Misa-sensei’s youtube tutorial for Japanese Grammar Lessons for Absolute Beginners.

Arigatou gozaimasu. Jaa mata ne.

Japanese Self-Study Updates (Lessons 42 and 43) | Blushing Geek

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