Japanese Self-Studying Updates (Lessons 38 and 39)

Konnichiwa minna-san!

Welcome to another update for my weekly Japanese self-studying session! And yes, there’s no video updates just yet, *wink. But I’ll come to that soon, I promise.

So as a review for last week, I did lessons 36 and 37. For lesson 36, we’ve got to learn on how to say “I think ~” in Japanese and it was pretty easy and straightforward. And for lesson 37 is how to say “~ said” in Japanese. It was actually a bit confusing at first but when you study it over and over again, you’ll get to the conclusion that it wasn’t really that bad at all.

And for this week, I am learning something interesting again. Check out below to know what.

And again, this is not an attempt to create a tutorial but just sharing what I’ve learn from Misa-sensei’s Grammar Lessons for Absolute Beginners in Youtube. You can see what I’ve been learning from Lessons 1-37 here.

LESSON 38: Informal “Said” / A called “B”

(~ wa) ~ tte
= ~ said ~ <more informal>Ex: June said he likes cars
=> Jun wa kuruma ga suki da tte

This tte can also used as “someone JUST said” but is less common.

~ tte itta
= I said / (s)he JUST said

Ex: What did you just say?
=> Nante itta?
I said I’m busy
=> Isogashii tte
It kinda sound like “I’m a bit frustrated that I have to repeat“. So instead, they would normally say:
=> Isogashii tte itta

Ex: Ed Sheeran said he likes cat
=> Edo shiiran wa neko ga suki da tte
Keita said the new movie was interesting
=> Keita wa atarashii eiga wa omoshirokatta tte
Harry said he will not come
=> Harii wa konai tte
Jim said he wants to play games
=> Jimu wa geemu shitai tte
My co-worker said he will quite the job
=> Douryou wa shigoto wo yameru tte

yameru => to quit (eg. job, smoking, drinking etc.)

They said tomorrow is a holiday in Germany
=> Ashita wa doitsu de kyuujitsu da tte
doitsu => Germany
kyuujitsu => holiday

toiu => to say <formal>; tteiu <informal>
it could also be used as called. Like: A called B
structure: B toiu A / B tteiu A
Ex: A movie called “Harry Potter”
=> Harii pottaa toiu eiga <formal>
=> Harii pottaa tteiu eiga <informal>
Do you know a movie called “Harry Potter”?
=> Harii pottaa toiu eiga wo shitteimasu ka? <formal>
=> Harii pottaa tteiu eiga wo shitte(i)ru? <informal>

Have you seen a movie called “Kimi no na wa”?
=> Kimi no na wa toiu eiga wo mita koto ga arimasu ka? <formal>
=> Kimi no na wa tteiu eiga wo mita koto aru? <informal>
To know more about done~ / have done ~ refer to lesson 20

tsuki no wa guma => moon bear
kuma => bear
I like a bear called “moon bear”
=> Tsuki no wa guma toiu kuma ga suki desu <formal>
=> Tsuki no wa guma tteiu kuma ga suki <informal>
machi => town
I want to go to a town called “Hakone”
=> Hakone toiu machi ni ikitai desu <formal>
=> Hakone tteiu machi ni ikitai <informal>
A manga called “Naruto”
=> Naruto toiu manga <formal>
=> Naruto tteiu manga <informal>

B toiu A <formal> / B tteiu A <informal> / B tte A <more informal>
= A called B

Ex: A book called “Harry Potter”
=> Harii pottaa tte hon <more informal>
=> Harii pottaa tteiu hon <informal>
=> Harii pottaa toiu hon <formal>
I look up as I walk (sukiyaki)
=> Ue wo muite arukou
A song called “ue wo muite arukou
=> Ue wo muite arukou tte kyoku / uta
Have you listened to a song called “ue wo muite arukou“?
=> Ue wo muite arukou tte kyoku, kiita koto aru?
saito => website
A person called/named “Tanaka
=> Tanaka san tte hito
A fish called “blowfish”>
=> Fugu tte sakana
fugu => blowfish
Have you eaten a fish called “blowfish”?
=> Fugu tte sakana wo tabeta koto aru?

nanto iu ~ / nante iu ~
=> ~ called “what”
Ex: What’s the game called? (lit. A game called “what”?)
=> Nantoiu geemu desu ka? <formal>
=> Nanteiu geemu? <informal>
What’s the book called?
=> Nantoiu hon desu ka? <formal>
=> Nanteiu hon? <informal>
What book are you reading? (lit. a book called “what” are you reading?)
=> Nantoiu hon wo yondeimasu ka? <formal>
=> Nanteiu hon wo yonde(i)ru? <informal>
What’s this game called? (lit. as for this, a game called “what”?)
=> Kore wa nantoiu geemu desu ka? <formal>
=> Kore wa nanteiu geemu? <informal>
For that question, you can answer the name of the game, then add desu at the end or:
It’s called “The legend of Zelda”
=> Zeruda no densetsu to iimasu <formal>
=> Zeruda no densetsu tte iu <informal>
densetsu => legend
Zeruda => Zelda

New vocabularies learned from this lesson:

  • Edo Shiiran => Ed Sheeran
  • Jimu => Jim
  • yameru => to quit (eg. job, smoking, drinking etc.)
  • doitsu => Germany
  • kyuujitsu => holiday
  • tsuki no wa guma => moon bear
  • kuma => bear
  • machi => town
  • saito => website
  • fugu => blowfish
  • densetsu => legend
  • Zeruda => Zelda

LESSON 39: Aru and Iru + Particles (There is ~ / I have ~)

= ~ exist / there is ~ / I have ~For this verb, we always use the particle ga.
<object> ga aruEx: There is a computer
=> Pasokon ga aru
There is an apple
=> Ringo ga aru
There is a pharmacy
=> Yakkyoku ga aru
yakkyoku => pharmacy; drugstore
But there is also an instance that we use the particle wa.
Ex: There is a pen
=> Pen wa aru
It means: Like for example, I don’t have a pencil but as for the pen, I do.
As you can remember from the previous lessons, aside from being a topic marker, wa particle is also used when comparing things.
enpitsu => pencil
Ex: Do you have a pen?
=> Enpitsu ga aru?
But if the person doesn’t have a pencil but they have pen instead, they would answer:
I have a pen (but not a pencil)
=> Pen wa aru
pasupooto => passport
I have this (but not that)
= ~ wa aruARU formal conjugations

  • arimasu
  • arimasen <negation>
  • arimashita <past tense>
  • arimasen deshita <past tense negation>

ARU te form => atte
ARU informal conjugations

  • nai <negation
  • atta <past tense>
  • nakatta <past tense negation>

Ex: I don’t have money
=> Okane ga nai <informal>
I don’t have time
=> Jikan ga nai <informal>

For ~ ga aru, you only add object before ga.
<non-living> ga aru
<living> ga iru (even zombies)
= there is / I have

IRU formal conjugations

  • imasu
  • imasen <negation>
  • imashita <past tense>
  • imasen deshita <past tense negation>

IRU te form => ite
IRU informal conjugations

  • inai <negation
  • ita <past tense>
  • inakatta <past tense negation>

Ex: There are lots of zombies!
=> Takusan zonbi ga iru!
There is a dog
=> Inu ga iru
I have a friend
=> Tomodachi ga iru
I have a Japanese friend
=> Nihonjin no tomodachi ga iru
Do you have a brother / sister?
=> Kyoudai ga iru? <informal>
=> Kyoudai ga imasu ka? <formal>
kyoudai => siblings (but usually male siblings)
There is a tv in this room
=> Kono heya ni terebi ga aru
We use the NI particle in the example above to indicate WHERE the thing is
ni particle => direction <to go / to come / to return>
Usually <place> ni is translated as to (a) <place> in English but it is also translated as at or in. With verbs that give emphasis to WHERE you are right now or WHERE you exist, you use the ni particle.
<place> NI + verbs that focus on where you are (eg. to live, to stay, to exist, to go, to come, to return)

tomaru => to stay (eg. in a hotel)
Ex: I will stay in a hotel
=> Hoteru ni tomaru
taizai suru => to stay (eg. in a city)
Ex: I will stay in Tokyo
=> Toukyou ni taizai suru

Most verbs use the DE particle to indicate the place but verbs like aru, iru, sumu, iku, kuru, kaeru, you need to use the NI particle.
Ex: I have a friend in Japan
=> Nihon ni tomodachi ga iru

koko / soko / asoko + ni ~ ga aru
= there is (lit. AT) ~ here / there (near you) / over there
Ex: I eat here
*You would normally use the DE particle
=> Koko de taberu
But if you use the verb aru, you need to pair it with the NI particle
Ex: It’s here
=> Koko ni aru

You also use the same construction with there is ~ on / under / near.
nearby ~
= chikaku ni ~
There is a station nearby
=> Chikaku ni eki ga aru
chikaku => near
There is a supermarket nearby
=> Chikaku ni suupaa ga aru
There is a school nearby
=> Chikaku ni gakkou

There is A near B
= B no chikaku ni, A
Ex: There is a supermarket near the pharmacy
=> Yakkyoku no chikaku ni, suupaa ga aru
There is a bookstore near my house
=> Ie/Uchi no chikaku ni, honya ga aru
ie => house
uchi => home

On ~
= ~ no ue ni
ue => above, up, on, top
Ex: There is a computer on the desk
=> Tsukue no ue ni pasokon ga aru
tsukue => desk
isu => chair
There is a cat on the chair
=> Isu no ue ni neku ga iru

under  ~
= ~ no shita ni
shita => under; down; below
Ex: There is a bag under the table
=> Teeburu no shita ni kaban ga aru
teeburu => table
There are people under the bridge
=> Hashi no shita ni hita ga iru

in front of ~
= ~ no mae ni
Ex: There is a camera in front of me
=> Watashi no mae ni kamera ga aru
There is a post office in front of the cafe
=> Kafe no mae ni yuubinkyoku ga aru
yuubinkyoku => post office

behind ~
= ~ no ushiro ni
ushiro => back; behind; rear
Ex: There is a book behind me
=> Watashi no ushiro ni hon ga aru
What is there behind you Misa?
=> Misa no ushiro ni nani ga aru?
What do you have / What’s there?
=> Nani ga aru?
There is a library behind the book store
=> Honya no ushiro ni toshokan ga aru

next to ~
= ~ no tonari
tonari => neighbor; next to (esp. living next door to)
Ex: There is a post office next to my house
=> Ie / uchi no tonari ni yuubinkyoku ga aru
There is a cafe next to the restaurant
=> Resutoran no tonari ni kafe ga aru
There is a convenience store next to the hotel
=> Hoteru no tonari ni konbini ga aru

<place> ni <object> ga aru
= there is <object> in <place>
*Focus is on the “object
But when someone asks: Where is ~? You answer:
<object> wa <place> ni aru
= the object is (located) in <place>
*Focus is on WHERE the object is
*When we indicate the place of the object, we use the wa particle instead of ga
Ex: Where is the pen?
=> Pen wa doko desu ka?
The pen is here
=> Pen wa koko ni aru
The pen is in the next room
=> Pen wa tonari no heya ni aru
Where is Suzuki?
=> Sukusi san wa doko desu ka?
Suzuki is in the kitchen
=> Suzuki san wa kicchin ni iru
kicchin => kitchen
Where is your cat?
=> Neku wa doko desu ka?
My cat is outside
=> Neko wa soto ni iru
There is a cat outside
=> Soto ni neku ga iru

There is this one situation where we use the DE particle with aru:
<place> DE + <event (eg. contest, concert, accident, party)> ga aru
Ex: There is a concert in London
=> Rondon de konsaato ga aru
There was an accident in this neighborhood
=> Kono kinjo de jiko ga arimashita <formal>
There was an accident on the highway
=> Kousokudouro de jiko ga arimashita
There is a contest in the park
=> Kouen de kontesuto ga aru
There will be a costplay show in the park
=> Kouen de kosupure shoo ga aru

<place> de <event> ga aru
<place> ni <object> ga aru

New vocabularies learned from this lesson:

  • yakkyoku => pharmacy; drugstore
  • enpitsu => pencil
  • pasupooto => passport
  • zonbi => zombies
  • kyoudai => siblings (but usually male siblings)
  • tomaru => to stay (eg. in a hotel)
  • taizai suru => to stay (eg. in a city)
  • chikaku => near
  • suupaa => supermarket
  • ue => above, up, on, top
  • tsukue => desk
  • isu => chair
  • shita => under; down; below
  • teeburu => table
  • yuubinkyoku => post office
  • ushiro => back; behind; rear
  • tonari => neighbor; next to (esp. living next door to)
  • hoteru => hotel
  • kicchin => kitchen
  • Rondon => London
  • konsaato => concert
  • kinjo => neighborhood
  • jiko => accident; incident
  • kousokudouro => highway; expressway
  • kontesuto => contest
  • kosupure => costplay
  • shoo => show

That’s it for this week guys!

Btw, I’m not sure if I could take up new lessons next week because I am planning to really enjoy my holiday before 2018 comes, but let’s see.

For the earlier lessons, you can refer to my previous updates for lessons 1-37. And again, if you want to study Japanese language as well, I am highly recommending Misa-sensei’s youtube tutorial for Japanese Grammar Lessons for Absolute Beginners.

Arigatou gozaimasu. Jaa mata ne.

Japanese Self-Studying Updates (Lessons 38 and 39) | Blushing Geek

Subscribe To Blushing Geek